Majority of people are active users of cell phones and services provided by mobile network. At the same time, there are some who are concerned about any possible impact of the base stations on human health. Hence, we would like to provide detailed information about the mobile communication, radio base stations, radio frequencies and their impact on human health.
What is the system of cellular network?
A mobile network is divided into geographical areas called “cells”, each served by a base station. Cell phones are used to connect to a network. The system is designed to provide a constant connection between cell phones and networks while the user moves from one cell to another. To connect to each other cell phones and base stations exchange radio signals. The level of current signals is thoroughly optimized for better work of the network. How does the mobile network work? Cell phones When a cell phone is on, it responds to certain signals from nearby base stations. Connection gets established when the nearest base station is a part of the network, which the phone is registered to. Then the phone is being inactive and only renews connection with network until the user makes or receives a call. Another aspect of the mobile network is that it has to transmit the conversation session from one base station to another when the user is on the move. This process is called “session transmission” – the network transmits the session from one base station to another without failure and indication of changes.
Cell phones are not able to work without base stations. Azercell’s base stations network enables us to continue enhancing our coverage area, as well as provide services like video-calls, mobile internet and many other. The power of electromagnetic waves transmitted from the base station change depending on a coverage area or “cell” of the area. Usually the power of a base station transmitter is between several watts and 100W, whereas Azercell’s stations have never transmitted more than 32 watts, and currently this is capped under 20 watt. Output of internal base stations is even lower. A base station consists of several various components: a module for equipment, a support or a mast which provides necessary height for a better coverage, transmitters and antennas located on top of the mast – or, in some cases, on the roofs of the buildings if the building is quite high. The width of the antennas is usually 15-30 cm, the length reaches several meters depending on working frequency. These antennas radiate sheaves of electromagnet energy (also called radio waves), which are very narrow in vertical direction (height), but are quite wide in horizontal direction (width). The radio-frequency energy at the ground level right under the antenna is very low. As a rule, the power of RF decreases dramatically when moving away from the base station, and even at the distance of several meters levels of intensity are much lower than international limits. In order to ensure effective operation of a mobile network, antennas are usually installed at a certain height, and if necessary, are fenced or the access to them is restricted by other facilities notifying that only authorized personnel is allowed to enter the area directly adjacent to the base station. As a result of these measures, RF levels are within the boundaries of international safety requirements.
Radio frequency and its impact on human body?
Radio waves are used for transmission of data in radio networks. The internationally recognized and independent International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issued guiding principles that set safe RF levels. According to their conclusions, the influence level of RF signals of base stations and wireless networks is so low that they do not affect a human health. Recent reviews have shown that level of RF effects of radio base station signals and wireless technology in public places (including schools and shops), as a rule, is thousand times lower than international norms. In fact, at equal levels of RF signals effect, the human body absorbs five times more signals from RF radio device and TV set than from base stations due to their lower frequency. The frequencies used in RF radio broadcasting (about 100 Hertz) and telecasting (about 300-400 MHz) are lower than the frequencies used in mobile communication (900 MHz and 1800 МHz for 2G and 2100 MHz for 3G). In addition, the stations of radio and television broadcasting have been functioning for more than 50 years, and no negative effects on human health have been revealed so far.
Health Care Aspects
The guiding principles of ICNIRP have been widely used in internationally and developed into national safety standards. The guiding principles are applied to cell phones, as well as to base stations and include a high level of safety requirements to protect against all existing effects of RF radiation on human health. There are not any known unfavorable consequences of RF levels below those mentioned by ICNIRP. The World Health Care organization (WHCO) came to a conclusion that the existing facts do not prove the existence of any adverse effects of electromagnetic fields of low power. The conclusions of WHCO regarding effects of RF radiation from cell phones and base stations on human health is based on reviews of many expert groups created by official national and international bodies. The groups have reviewed scientific works for the last 10 years and came to a joint conclusion that there are no persuasive facts proving existence of adverse effects of RF radiation from cell phones and base stations cause on human health within limits set by ICNIRP.
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